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Physisorption

Physisorption, also called physical adsorption, is a process in which the electronic structure of the atom or molecule is barely perturbed upon adsorption.

The fundamental interacting force of physisorption is Van der Waals force. Even though the interaction energy is very weak (~10–100 meV), physisorption plays an important role in nature. For instance, the van der Waals attraction between surfaces and foot-hairs of geckos (see Synthetic setae) provides the remarkable ability to climb up vertical walls.[4] Van der Waals forces originate from the interactions between induced, permanent or transient electric dipoles.

In comparison with chemisorption, in which the electronic structure of bonding atoms or molecules is changed and covalent or ionic bonds form, physisorption does not result in changes to the chemical bonding structure. In practice, the categorisation of a particular adsorption as physisorption or chemisorption depends principally on the binding energy of the adsorbate to the substrate, with physisorption being far weaker on a per-atom basis than any type of connection involving a chemical bond.

Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals force is a distance-dependent interaction between atoms or molecules. Unlike ionic or covalent bonds, these attractions do not result from a chemical electronic bond; they are comparatively weak and therefore more susceptible to disturbance. The van der Waals force quickly vanishes at longer distances between interacting molecules.

Named after Dutch physicist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, the van der Waals force plays a fundamental role in fields as diverse as supramolecular chemistry, structural biology, polymer science, nanotechnology, surface science, and condensed matter physics. It also underlies many properties of organic compounds and molecular solids, including their solubility in polar and non-polar media.

If no other force is present, the distance between atoms at which the force becomes repulsive rather than attractive as the atoms approach one another is called the van der Waals contact distance; this phenomenon results from the mutual repulsion between the atoms’ electron clouds.

The van der Waals forces are usually described as a combination of the London dispersion forces between “instantaneously induced dipoles”, Debye forces between permanent dipoles and induced dipoles, and the Keesom force between permanent molecular dipoles whose rotational orientations are dynamically averaged over time.

Comparison with chemisorption

  • Physisorption is a general phenomenon and occurs in any solid/fluid or solid/gas system. Chemisorption is characterized by chemical specificity.
  • In physisorption, perturbation of the electronic states of adsorbent and adsorbate is minimal. The adsorption forces include London Forces, dipole-dipole attractions, dipole-induced attraction and “hydrogen bonding.” For chemisorption, changes in the electronic states may be detectable by suitable physical means, in other words, chemical bonding.
  • Typical binding energy of physisorption is about 10–300 meV and non-localized. Chemisorption usually forms bonding with energy of 1–10 eV and localized.
  • The elementary step in physisorption from a gas phase does not involve an activation energy. Chemisorption often involves an activation energy.
  • For physisorption gas phase molecules, adsorbates, form multilayer adsorption unless physical barriers, such as porosity, interfere. In chemisorption, molecules are adsorbed on the surface by valence bonds and only form monolayer adsorption.
  • A direct transition from physisorption to chemisorption has been observed by attaching a CO molecule to the tip of an atomic force microscope and measuring its interaction with a single iron atom.  This effect was observed in the late 1960s from field emission and ESR measurements and reported by Moyes and Wells.

Physisorption Analysers

AMI Surface DX

A multi-station instrument specifically for dynamic BET analysis. The AMI Surface DX is compact and can perform simultaneous analysis on four samples. This high-throughput and fully automated analyzer ensures the utmost efficiency in any laboratory.

AMI Meso Series

The AMI Meso Series of BET surface area instruments utilises the static volumetric method to measure isotherms. The AMI Meso Series is designed specifically to characterize mesoporous materials and can even be adapted with multiple analysis ports for high-throughput testing.

AMI Micro Series

The AMI Micro series of sorption instruments is designed to determine specific surface area, pore size distribution, and pore volume in everything from carbon black to pigments to zeolites and can be adapted with multiple analysis ports for high-throughput sample testing.

AMI Sync Series

The AMI Sync Series is a high throughput BET analyser with up to four measuring stations and a separate p0 measuring cell for simultaneous measurement of saturation vapor pressure.

 

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